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what caused the 2011 christchurch earthquake

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[64] The building was thought to be irreparably damaged and have the potential to bring down other buildings if it fell; an area of a two-block radius around the hotel was thus evacuated. [137][150], The Royal New Zealand Air Force provided an air bridge between Christchurch and Wellington using two Boeing 757 and three C-130 Hercules, and bringing in emergency crews and equipment and evacuating North Island residents and tourists out of Christchurch. [64] Search of the building was technically difficult for USAR teams, requiring the deconstruction of 4-tonne stair sets, but the building was cleared with no victims discovered.[65]. Before the earthquake occurred, there were many disaster response personnel and government officials from the US an What caused the quake? [179], Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper released a statement saying: "The thoughts and prayers of Canadians are with all those affected by the earthquake. Posttraumatic stress symptoms in Police Staff 12–18 months after the Canterbury earthquakes. [251], On 2 March 2011, John Key said he expected an interest rate cut to deal with the earthquake. It was a 6.3 magnitude earthquake and the focus was very shallow at 4.99 kilometres deep. What caused the 2011 Christchurch earthquake in New zealand? [247][248], Earthquake Recovery Minister Gerry Brownlee echoed that fewer claims were expected through the EQC than for 2010. [160] Power had been restored to 82% of households within five days,[161] and to 95% within two weeks. [231][232] The Canterbury Rugby League cancelled their pre-season competition. [166][167] Mains water supply was re-established to 70% of households within one week. Since the fault movement that caused the earthquake did not visibly breach the Earth’s surface, scientists were reliant on measurements from a variety of instruments to determine the location and nature of the fault movements. They started work immediately in a multi-agency response to the collapse of the CTV Building on Madras Street. Once the composite Christchurch Coordination Centre was established on 23 February the CDEM Group Controllers and ECC personnel relocated to the City Art Gallery to supplement the management personnel available to the National Controller. At 12.51 p.m. on Tuesday 22 February 2011, a magnitude 6.3 earthquake caused severe damage in Christchurch and Lyttelton, killing 185 people and injuring several thousand. Official visitation teams were organised by Civil Defence and there were engineers or assessors from EQC. [2] The earthquake struck the Canterbury region in New Zealand's South Island and was centred 6.7 kilometres (4.2 mi) south-east of the centre of Christchurch,[10] New Zealand's second-most populous city. [16], The current New Zealand building code requires a building with a 50-year design life to withstand predicted loads of a 500-year event. [256][257][260] It is predicted that the people who are displaced experience the worst of the damage, and therefore the reported levels of PTSD and depression are often lower than they would have been had the displaced citizens been available to collect data from. [28] Although the rupture was subsurface, satellite images indicated that the net displacement of the land south of the fault was 50 cm westwards and upwards; the land movement would have been greater during the earthquake. [224][225] The Super Rugby Round 2 match between the Crusaders and Hurricanes scheduled for 26 February 2011 at Westpac Stadium in Wellington was abandoned. In April 2013, the rebuilding cost of Christchurch and the surrounding Canterbury region was estimated at $40 billion. [20] By comparison, the 2010 quake—in which damage was predominantly to pre-1970s buildings—exerted 65% of the design loading on buildings. Below is a list of all aftershocks of Richter, moment, and body-wave magnitudes 5.0 and above that occurred in the region between 22 February 2011 and 15 January 2012. Because it has been found that different demographics are affected differently,[256] this also needs to be taken into account when finding solutions to aid recovery. Liquefaction is when a water like liquid emerges from the ground. A Central City Red Zone was established on the day of the earthquake as a public exclusion zone in central Christchurch. The number of international guest nights had declined by just 6% after the September earthquake, but fell by a further third following the February earthquake. The June 2011 Christchurch earthquake was a shallow magnitude 6.0 M w earthquake that occurred on 13 June 2011 at 14:20 NZST (02:20 UTC).It was … That would make it the third most costly earthquake event in history, after the 2011 Japan and 1994 California earthquakes. Perceptions of distress and positive consequences following exposure to a major disaster amongst a well-studied cohort. [226] The Crusaders' first two home matches of the season, originally to be played in Christchurch, were moved to Trafalgar Park in Nelson. [196] New Zealand's governor-general, Sir Anand Satyanand, attended, along with John Key, Bob Parker, and a number of local and international dignitaries. Rhodes, B., & Becker, L. (2013). [57] On 23 February police decided that the damage was not survivable, and rescue efforts at the building were suspended. [262] The displacement of large numbers of citizens following a trauma poses as a problem for researchers of natural disasters. ... We will be doing everything we can to work with our New Zealand family, with Prime Minister Key and his emergency services personnel, his military officers, his medical people, his search and rescue teams. SuperSealing’s task was to help prevent road and pathway erosion that had suffered extensive wash … The earthquake’s epicentre was located some 25 miles (40 km) west of Christchurch near the town of Darfield, and the focus was located about 6 miles (10 km) beneath the surface. [229] The team's round three match against the Northern Mystics in Auckland was postponed,[229] while their round four home match against the Waikato Bay of Plenty Magic was moved to the Energy Events Centre in Rotorua. [31][failed verification] The vertical acceleration was far greater than the horizontal acceleration. [169] Community laundries were set up in affected suburbs. [262] Depressive symptoms before a disaster can predict higher chances of developing PTSD following a trauma. The powerful earthquake that smashed buildings, cracked roads and twisted rail lines in Christchurch also ripped a new 3.5m-wide fault line in the Earth's surface. [256][260][262] Those that exhibit lower mental health prior to an earthquake will be more likely to experience negative life changes than positive life changes with regard to personal strength. One of the plates will become higher than the other and cause the land to not only move away horizontally but vertically as well. Liquefaction is the process of soil particles liquefying because they have been disturbed by secondary waves and then they re-arrange, meaning that soil mass compacts and decreases in volume, allowing water to come to the surface of a land area. "Christchurch earthquake" redirects here. The Earthquake had a magnitude of 6.3 and an epicentre of 43.58°S, 172.68°E. The reason a tsunami didn't occur for either of the Christchurch Earthquakes is because the earthquake occurred along the Alpine fault near Christchurch but not the coast of New Zealand meaning there would insufficient water supply to cause a tsunami. Marian College did not return to the original site in Shirley but instead moved to a site at Cathedral College on Barbadoes Street. The President also made a call to Prime Minister Key. State of national emergency. [101], Twelve streets in Redcliffs were evacuated on the night of 24 February 2015 after some cliffs and hills surrounding Redcliffs were deemed unstable. ", CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (, Television interview with Minister Brownlee on NZ TV One, 24 February 2011 at 19:30 NZT. not including outlying urban areas from other districts, Christchurch continues to have a significantly larger population over Wellington.[239][240]. It has an X rating on the Mercalli scale, signifying that it was an intense earthquake. Fergusson, D.M., Boden, J.M., Horwood, L.J., & Mulder, R.T. (2015). (2015). On February 22nd 2011, a delayed aftershock of a previous earthquake occurred in Christchurch, New Zealand. [236] Much of the NZ$90 million cost of the 2011 census was written off. Christchurch, the country’s second largest city, suffered widespread damage, particularly in the central city and eastern suburbs. [24] The acceleration occurred mainly in a vertical direction,[16] with eyewitness accounts of people being tossed into the air. It also covers land damage within 8 metres of a home; this coverage is uncapped. [142] Taiwan sent a 22-member team from the National Fire Agency, along with two tons of specialist search and rescue equipment. [252], In January 2013 Earthquake Recovery Minister Gerry Brownlee said repairs to damaged homes to date had totalled more than $1 billion. Was it a Conservative plate boundary? [135] They also responded to fires, serious structural damage reports, and landslides working with structural engineers, seismologists and geologists, as well as construction workers, crane and digger operators and demolition experts. … The Christchurch rebuild is forecast to start in earnest during the second half of 2012, continuing through to at least 2016. [84][85][86], Several other churches were seriously damaged, including: Knox Presbyterian Church, St Luke's Anglican Church, Durham Street Methodist Church, St Paul's-Trinity-Pacific Presbyterian Church, Oxford Terrace Baptist Church, Holy Trinity Avonside and Holy Trinity, Lyttelton. Even though the February 2011 earthquake was smaller in magnitude than the September 2010 earthquake, its impact was much greater. The Department of Building and Housing also released a plan for the construction of 500 modular homes. [103], The quake was felt as far north as Tauranga[104] and as far south as Invercargill, where the 111 emergency network was rendered out of service. A September 2010 earthquake centered 40 kilometers (25 miles) west of Christchurch, in the plains near Darfield, struck at 4:35 a.m., had a magnitude of 7.1, and caused some structural damage and one death (by heart attack). Whether it will be restored or demolished is yet to be decided. [46] Soil liquefaction and surface flooding also occurred. The Australian Plate and the Pacific Plate share a convergent plate boundary. The hidden fault that caused the February 2011 Christchurch earthquake. [136] It was equipped to provide triage, emergency care, maternity, dental care, isolation tents for gastroenteritis, and to provide primary care since most general practices in the area were unable to open. [235], The chief executive of Statistics New Zealand, Geoff Bascand, announced on 25 February that the national census planned for 8 March 2011 would not take place due to the disruption and displacement of people in the Canterbury region, and also the damage sustained by Statistics New Zealand's buildings in Christchurch, which was scheduled to process much of the census. This means seismic activity is very high. Researching the mental health effects of earthquakes and other disasters is important so communities can heal properly after experiencing a traumatic event. [219] The plans were confirmed in February 2013, with seven schools closing, 10 schools merging into five (not including the overturned Phillipstown-Woolston merger), and three high schools taking on additional year levels. Several aftershocks were reported, some registering at a 5.6 magnitude. The population loss caused by the earthquake reversed this, with the Wellington main urban area back in second position. [168] Waste water and sewerage systems were severely damaged. Water and wastewater services were disrupted throughout the city, with authorities urging residents to conserve water and collect rainwater. More than 361 aftershocks occurred in the first week following the 6.3-magnitude earthquake. Media releases. By Peter Drew A report by the New Zealand Earthquake Commission adds to speculation and mysteries surrounding possible foreknowledge of the Christchurch earthquake in 2011 What really happened with the Christchurch earthquake which decimated the city in February 2011? At the sight of the Christchurch earthquake and other earthquakes worldwide, liquefaction can take place. Top: Divergent [56], The six-storey Canterbury Television (CTV) building collapsed in the earthquake, leaving only its lift shaft standing, which caught fire. (2015). 7 Answers. Description of the event: In February 2011, a 6.3M earthquake devastated the city of Christchurch, New Zealand. Many of the people trapped in that building were Japanese and other foreign English language students. [89], Several areas in and around Christchurch were deemed infeasible to rebuild due to earthquake damage resulting from soil liquefaction and rockslides. [174] The census was ultimately deferred to 5 March 2013. Looking at territorial areas only, i.e. [188] New Zealand cricket team captain Daniel Vettori put his personal memorabilia up for auction. We will be working alongside them to give as much relief and assistance to New Zealand as we possibly can. The red devil in Christchurch. [122] On 23 February the Minister of Civil Defence, John Carter declared the situation a state of national emergency,[123] the country's first for a civil defence emergency (the only other one was for the 1951 waterfront dispute). Studying earthquakes has shown to be a difficult task when considering all the limitations created by natural disasters. [55] As of February 2015, there had been 1240 demolitions within the four avenues since the September 2010 earthquakes. On one of their journeys, an RAAF Hercules sustained minor damage in an aftershock. [20], GNS Science stated that the earthquake arose from the rupture of an 8 km x 8 km fault running east-northeast at a depth of 1–2 km beneath the southern edge of the Avon-Heathcote Estuary and dipping southwards at an angle of about 65 degrees from the horizontal beneath the Port Hills. ChristChurch Earthquake 2011: Home; Causes Of An Earthquake; The Cause Of The Christchurch Earthquake; The Impact Of The 2011 Eartquake; How We Can Prevent Devastating Earthquake Damage; Bibliography; Tectonic Theory Tectonic theory is that the earth is made up of different plates, all of the plates float on liquid mantle. [182], Ban Ki-Moon, Secretary-General of the United Nations, issued a statement on behalf of the UN expressing his "deep sadness" and stressed the "readiness of the United Nations to contribute to its efforts in any way needed". Christchurch being New Zealand’s second most populated city, there were many casualties caused by the earthquake. A September 2010 earthquake centered 40 kilometers (25 miles) west of Christchurch, in the plains near Darfield, struck at 4:35 a.m., had a magnitude of 7.1, and caused some structural damage and one death (by heart attack). On 13th June 2011 two large earthquakes measuring 5.5 and 6.3 on the Richter Scale hit Christchurch City, in the South Island of New Zealand. [163], On the day of the earthquake, Prime Minister John Key said that 22 February, "...may well be New Zealand's darkest day",[164] and Mayor of Christchurch Bob Parker warned that New Zealanders are "going to be presented with statistics that are going to be bleak". [187], Pope Benedict XVI issued an announcement on the earthquake in a statement during his Wednesday audience on 23 February, stating that he was praying for the dead and the injured victims of the devastating earthquake, and encouraging those involved in the rescue efforts. [45], Road and bridge damage occurred and hampered rescue efforts. The June 2011 Christchurch earthquake was a shallow magnitude 6.0 M w earthquake that occurred on 13 June 2011 at 14:20 NZST (02:20 UTC).It was centred at a depth of 7 km (4.3 mi), about 5 km (3 mi) south-east of Christchurch, which had previously been devastated by a magnitude 6.2 M W earthquake in February 2011. Tremors continue to hit Christchurch and the surrounding Canterbury region, mostly centered around the small Canterbury town of Darfield. [47] Road surfaces were forced up by liquefaction, and water and sand were spewing out of cracks. [257][260] For example, after the Christchurch earthquakes, studies reported that older educated females of European New Zealand descent were over represented in their sample population,[257][260] which isn't accurate of the Christchurch population as a whole. [205], On the day of the earthquake, the main secondary school teachers' union, the Post Primary Teachers Association, had arranged a paid union meeting to be held that afternoon for members in the Christchurch area. February's earthquake was forecast . [98] The Shag Rock, a notable landmark, was reduced to half of its former height. The M6.1 earthquake caused liquefaction, exacerbating the catastrophic damage to the city resulting in 185 casualties and damages accumulating too more than NZ$30 billion dollars. In the central city, two buses were crushed by falling buildings. This meant most secondary schools in the city had closed early that day and most students had returned home before the earthquake hit, by coincidence limiting potential casualties. [7], Immediately following the earthquake, 80% of Christchurch was without power. Thousands of portaloos and chemical toilets from throughout New Zealand and overseas were brought into the city. The west wall suffered collapses in the June 2011 earthquake and the December 2011 quake[66] due to a steel structure – intended to stabilise the rose window – pushing it in. The remainder of the tower was demolished in March 2012. Significant liquefaction affected the eastern suburbs, producing around 400,000 tonnes of silt. [11][12] According to GNS Science seismologists, the energy released in Christchurch was equivalent to a magnitude 6.7 earthquake. [100] Large boulders were found on the lawns of damaged houses. M 6.2 Christchurch Tue, Feb 22 2011. (This is 23:51 21 February UTC). This included Shirley Boys' High School sharing with Papanui High School,[213] Linwood College sharing with Cashmere High School[214] and Avonside Girls High School sharing with Burnside High School[215] and Marian College sharing with St Bedes College and Unlimited Paenga Tawhiti sharing with Halswell Residential College. [69] Since 15 August 2013 the cathedral congregation has worshipped at the Cardboard Cathedral. The cost of the rebuild is set to be $16 million. The most serious injuries were caused by falling masonry or as a result of the collapse of buildings. [138][139] [152] The Royal Australian Air Force also assisted with air lifts. [156], Australia's foreign minister Kevin Rudd told Sky News that New Zealand's Foreign Affairs Minister Murray McCully had asked for further help from Australia. They took into account a technical investigation undertaken by the Department of Building and Housing. An additional 28 people were killed in various places across the city centre, and twelve were killed in suburban Christchurch. The crew of the Navy ship Canterbury, in Lyttelton harbour at the time of the earthquake, provided meals for 1,000 people left homeless in that town,[151] and accommodation for a small number of locals. [189] All Black Sonny Bill Williams and Sky Television both made large donations from Williams' fourth boxing bout which was dubbed "The Clash For Canterbury". [114] [200] The Royal Commission made a total of 189 recommendations and found that the Canterbury Television building should not have been granted a building permit by the Christchurch City Council. Initial reports by GNS Science suggested that ground motion "considerably exceeded even 2500-year design motions",[32] beyond maximum considered events (MCE). [108], The earthquake combined with the urgency created by the unseasonably early break-up of sea ice on the Ross Ice Shelf caused logistical problems with the return of Antarctic summer season research operations from Scott Base and McMurdo Station in Antarctica to Christchurch. Wanaka Primary School alone had received 115 new enrolments as Christchurch families moved to their holiday homes in the town.[212]. The September 2010 earthquake caused two Christchurch residents to be seriously injured, one by a falling chimney and a second by flying glass, and led to many with less serious injuries. It has an X rating on the Mercalli scale, signifying that it was an intense earthquake. The Christchurch Earthquake (2011) Home; Causes ; Impacts ; Mitigation; References; Casualties, Damages and Other Effects. [82][83], The Catholic Cathedral of the Blessed Sacrament was also severely damaged, with the towers falling. [62] The reinforced concrete building had been constructed in 1963–1964. There is evidence that suggests that the mental health effects of natural disasters can be debilitating and detrimental to the community affected.[256][257][258][259][260][261][262]. [177] Kamalesh Sharma, Commonwealth Secretary-General, sent a message of support to the Prime Minister and stated "our heart and condolences go immediately to the bereaved." In September 2012, Minister of Education Hekia Parata announced plans to permanently close and/or merge a number of schools due to falling roll numbers and quake damage. [78] St Elmo Courts has been damaged in the September 2010 earthquake and the owner intended to repair the building, but further damage caused by the February 2011 event resulted in a decision to demolish, which was done the following month. Trajectories of posttraumatic growth and depreciation after two major earthquakes. After a downturn in demand, a second wave of patients started arriving, many with much more severe injuries. 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