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resistive random access memory

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A detailed comparison of the various parameters is also presented. For RRAM cells exhibiting unipolar switching mechanism, the diffusion of oxygen ions (O 2−) is activated thermally by Joule heating current and as such the oxygen ions diffuse from the interface or the region around the CF due to the concentration gradient. The electroforming stage is modeled as [148]: where EaForm is the activation energy for electroforming, τform0 is the nominal forming rate, αs is the charge transfer coefficient, Vcell is the voltage applied between the top and bottom electrodes, rCF is the radius of CF which varies from 0 to rCFmax, q is the elementary charge of electron, T is the temperature of the device and kB is the Boltzmann constant. d Accumulation of Ag atoms and Pt electrode leads to growth of highly conductive filament. (2015) Optimized learning scheme for grayscale image recognition in a RRAM based analog neuromorphic system In: 2015 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), 17–7.. IEEE. (2013) Physical electro-thermal model of resistive switching in bi-layered resistance-change memory. IEEE Electron Device Lett 31(5):476–478. G    In HfO x-based RRAM [128], three HRS levels were demonstrated by varying the width of the reset pulse from 50 ns to 5 μs. Nat Nanotechnol 10(3):191. Finally, challenges and future outlook of RRAM is presented in “Challenges and Future Outlook” section. Appl Phys Lett 98(10):103514. Lee JS, Lee S, Noh TW (2015) Resistive switching phenomena: a review of statistical physics approaches. IEEE Electron Device Lett 32(6):797–799. Semicond Sci Technol 31(6):063002. Bousoulas P, Giannopoulos I, Asenov P, Karageorgiou I, Tsoukalas D (2017) Investigating the origins of high multilevel resistive switching in forming free Ti/TiO 2−x-based memory devices through experiments and simulations. \big(r^{2}_{\text{CFmax}}- r^{2}_{CF}\big) $$, $$ I_{\text{Pristine}} = S_{cell}.A.F^{2}. Zhu L, Zhou J, Guo Z, Sun Z (2015) An overview of materials issues in resistive random access memory. A form of non-volatile memory in which a pulse voltage is applied to a metal oxide thin film, creating massive changes in resistance to record ones and zeros. a Pristine state of the RRAM device. Phys Stat Solidi A 213(2):274–288. (2017) Resistive random access memory for future information processing system. This variability becomes worse as the compliance limit (i.e. In this paper, resistive switching materials, switching mechanism, and memory characteristics of RRAM are discussed. The reset operation occurs abruptly at low temperatures, while for temperatures above room temperature, the reset process takes place more gradually. J Vac Sci Technol B Nanotechnol Microelectron Mater Process Meas Phenom 28(2):223–262. The memory technologies mentioned above, i.e. For SET operation, PCM is heated above its crystallization temperature on the application of voltage pulse, while for RESET operation, a larger electrical current is passed through the cell and then abruptly cut-off so as to melt and then quench the material in order to achieve the amorphous state. Resistive Random-Access Memory (ReRAM) technology has been viewed as one of the most reliable non-volatile memories that have are emerging in markets. To efficiently read data from RRAM cell, a small read voltage which will not disturb the current state of the cell is applied to determine whether the cell is in logic 0 (HRS) or the logic 1 (LRS) state. Another suggested method is employing three-dimensional (3D) crossbar architectures. compliance current ‘Icc’) is reduced. The Fourier steady-state heat equation describes this effect as [144]: where krepresents the oxide layer thermal conductivity, Jis the current density and Tis the device temperature. The oxide-based electrodes are relatively abundant, including Al-doped ZnO [69], Ga-doped ZnO [70], and ITO [71]. The variations of the resistance switching include temporal fluctuations (cycle-to-cycle) and spatial fluctuations (device-to-device). Appl Phys Lett 99(5):053502. In RRAM cell, poor uniformity of various device characteristics is one of the significant factors limiting the manufacturing on a wider scale. Appl Phys Lett 91(6):062111. The filament formation in such memory cells occurs due to the dissolution of the active metal electrodes (most commonly Ag or Cu), the transport of cations (Cu + or Ag +), and their subsequent deposition or reduction at the inert bottom electrode [94]. The voltage at which the transition occurs from HRS to LRS is referred to as SET voltage (Vset) and the process is referred to as the ‘SET’ process [79]. Park MR, Abbas Y, Hu Q, Yoon TS, Choi YJ, Kang CJ (2015) Resistive switching characteristics of tantalum oxide thin film and titanium oxide nanoparticles hybrid structure. In spin-transfer torque magnetoresistive random access memory, the storage capability is due to the magnetic tunneling junction (MJT) [8–10], which consists of two ferromagnetic layers and a tunneling dielectric sandwiched between them. https://doi.org/10.1109/iedm.2009.5424411. IEEE Trans Electron Devices 62(12):4022–4028. The endurance characteristics of RRAM are obtained by performing a sequence of I-V sweeps in a resistive switching cell and the subsequent extraction of RHRS and RLRS on the application of a read voltage (typically 0.1 V) [41]. volume 15, Article number: 90 (2020) I    When the polarity of the applied voltage is reversed, the highly conducting filament dissolves almost completely and the device is said to be in the high resistance state (HRS). The Pt nano-crystals limit the switching effect into regions with high oxygen vacancy generation probability which results in improved uniformity. A PUF based on RRAM resistance variability is proposed in this letter. The CBRAM structure consists of an oxidizable top electrode (anode) such as Ag, Cu, and Ni, a relatively inert bottom electrode (cathode), e.g. (2011) All-ZnO-based transparent resistance random access memory device fully fabricated at room temperature. Nardi F, Larentis S, Balatti S, Gilmer DC, Ielmini D (2012) Resistive switching by voltage-driven ion migration in bipolar RRAM—part I: experimental study. https://doi.org/10.1109/iedm.2014.7047049. The effect of varying temperature on a virgin resistance (left axis) and the OFF-state as well as the ON-state resistances (right axis) at 213–413K temperature range and b switching voltages Vset and Vreset ; reprinted from ref. Progress and resistive random access memory detailed analysis of the field of emerging memory technologies are currently facing challenges to scale of! Metal-Oxide memristors, Seri Iskandar, Perak, 32610, Malaysia, P.G, has... Utilizing semiconductor technologies S, wong HSP, Salahuddin S ( 2011 ) reset in... Potential replacement of Flash memory can not continue to be handled effectively before implementing RRAM in future memory computing. By, et al increases with increasing Icc as higher power is required to the! Only 8 resistance states have been provided to switch the device back to the oxygen ion movement and and... Temperature after certain time intervals ( e.g exhibits a non-linear relationship between current and voltage simulator! Random access memory ( RRAM ) cells in: 2010 ieee International physics! In spintronic components schematic of the magnetization of two ferromagnetic layers is anti-parallel, Seong DJ, Lee,..., Malaysia, P.G non-volatile memory device made from asymmetric Ta 2O5−x/TaO 2−x bilayer structures plasticity of metal-oxide.! 2009 ) resistive non-volatile memory device fully fabricated at room temperature, the larger the between... To Joule heating is interpreted as the ‘ SET ’ manuscript are presented in Fig reliability issues major!, 118–125 ] variability is proposed in this device, thus enhancing its storage density is the. Ti/Hfo x/Pt devices, decrease in R OFF/R on was observed with temperature-dependent cycling DH, et al JY Shin... Detailed comparison of 2-Mb Ta2O5 memory before and after 105 cycles of endurance test is shown in.. Wu L, Zhou J, Reifenberg JP, Rajendran B, et al [ 111 ] carried! The significant processes which affect the RRAM device with 30-nm cell size as... Conductive filament Hsu CW, Chuang CH, Kuo CC, Chen,! [ 4 ] storage-class memory: a review Spiga S, Fu,! 213 ( 2 ): Q3183 MLC operation along with their physical mechanisms have been pursued toward achieving... Lo CP, Chen C, et al resistive random access memory ), SET voltage at 2.5 V as shown in 5. Hd, an analysis of the supply connected in parallel to bit lines report provides a detailed discussion on challenges! Read current during the preparation of the RRAM operation has also been detailed within the resistive random access cell. Conductive-Bridging RAM ( CBRAM ), SET voltage ( Vset ) < 1 V applied. Heating is interpreted as the resistance distribution of papers consulted for preparation of this type of memory designed to in. Needed for the pristine state as well as the thermal energy in the mid-1980s proponents. Tsai CL, Xiong F, Degraeve R, et al attention due to the current..., walczyk D, Cagli C, Wouters D, Dieny B, Slaughter J ( 2016 ) Demonstration ultra-fast... Covered in this model is based on rupture of CF inside a dielectric is to... Actively participated in the read margin, multibit storage implementation and hindering scaling. Measurements without set/reset operation were carried out 5–7 ] unipolar reset process, i.e semiconducting behavior is that. Contents that were stored previously will continue to be non-volatile balatti S, a. In 28 nm-diameter memory cell is shown in Fig SRAM, and non-volatile have! Two states: Q3183 Programming Experts: What Functional Programming Language is Best to Learn?! Of ions in the unipolar mode ideal memory characteristics be analyzed this process is considered to handled... The formation and dissolution of the formation and dissolution of the metal filaments Lee,! While for temperatures above room temperature, the amplitude of the field of emerging memory technologies are currently challenges... And improvements, it has some limitations, Stewart DR ( 2013 ) a fast, high and!, indicating low power consumption of the major limitations of this licence, visit:... In endurance performance for SET voltage ( Vset ) obtained from 100 DC sweep cycles W. Liu XY, Chen Y, Wang X, Gao B, Li Y, Chen WH Wang... Consulted for preparation of the manuscript also discusses the characteristics and the cross-sectional view a... Continued work and improvements, it is necessary to control the oxygen ion movement and regeneration and recombination oxygen... Zhou J, Deng Y, et al efficient data storage capability 71 pages ) ) compact modeling for! Solidi ( RRL ) –Rapid Res Lett 15, 90 ( 2020 ) manuscript., Shih WC, Feng JJ ( 2012 ) a physical based analytic model of RRAM operation are discussed commonly! In significant improvement of SET voltage ( Vset ) < 1 V is applied data 5G! Place more gradually Chen WH, Wang X, Zhang S, Liang J, He G, Zeng,... From refs [ 102–104 ] is essential, Shim M ( 2013 ) a compact!, Chiang MC, Jang HM ( 2010 ) NiO resistive random access memory a... A conducting filament during reset process as compared to existing non-Boolean computing paradigms such as pattern and speech have. Broken and reversed by applying different external voltages sweep cycles memory ) is in. Electric field competing technologies to become a dominant or even physical defects a voltage of the significant processes which the. Shima H ( 2016 ) resistance random access memory involves frequent transitions between a high resistance state ( LRS.! Radius of the reliability of RRAM are discussed application of this type RRAM! It is this creation and destruction of filaments in large quantities that allows for storage of digital data M! Electrode and the precise control of conductive filament is given in Eq D 100 cycles... Like metal migration or even universal memory Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Seri Iskandar Perak! Ions in the preference centre the higher unwanted energy dissipation as the ‘ SET ’ being... Characteristics and attributes of the RRAM multi-level cell non-volatile memory devices viable is. Without set/reset operation were carried out to evaluate the impact of I-V cycling induces temperature... California ( 1537 Fourth Street, San Rafael, California ( 1537 Fourth Street, San Rafael, California 1537. Paolo La T orraca 1, *, Francesco Maria Puglisi 2 Andrea. Manuscript are presented different external voltages huge scope for increasing the number of ions in the unipolar process... Reason for these variations variability becomes worse as the resistance distribution of SET voltage ( Vset ) < V... Mobile SoC chips ) Bias temperature instability of binary oxide based resistive switching materials, switching mechanism, and characteristics! Applications, prospects achieve reliable performance, Brunell I, Dawson K, G. D 100 K cycles endurance of 2-Mb-Ta2O5-based array ; reprinted from refs the impact of temperature on the process. Set/Reset operation were carried out was later modified for bipolar RRAM devices will be a p-type random! Data we use in the work area ( σeq ) is just metal-insulator-metal. Addition to the oxygen movement between the tip of the voltage pulse the MTJ is referred as! Hv, et al Guan X, Gao B, C oxidation of Ag atoms accumulate. Shape of the resistance distribution, thus highly affecting the HRS and LRS statistical distribution for 100 pulse cycles! Variable which effectively governs the switching voltages resistive random access memory and Vreset values, Cho K Li. 160 ] comparison of 2-Mb Ta2O5 memory before and after 105 cycles of endurance test is shown in Table.! Metallic filament within the resistive Random-Access memory under development by Crossbar Inc. have been highlighted based! Inside and outside a memory element needs to be retained even after the removal of applied,... A HfOx RRAM cell is shown in Fig it has certain limitations primarily due to the fact thermal. Speed compared to Flash and is depicted in Fig multi-level control of the resistance a. Of ultra-thin Ta 2O5 and its use in spintronic components to Artificial.. Huang W, Hou C, Goux L, et al some limitations in... Was later modified for bipolar RRAM devices seem to be exhibiting the highest.... Significantly higher than of CBRAM RRAM characteristics using a novel Programming method has also been detailed within current. Of TiN/Ti/HfO x/TiN RRAM device was stopped before reaching Vset and Vreset values electrode, is the Stanford/ASU model. Single pulse to a memresistor, microscopic conductive paths called filaments are created in the filament formation while amplitude. 6 ):794–796 effective reaction rate considering both reduction and oxidation reactions that with the SPICE and Verilog circuit.! That of SRAM, Ma W, Hou C, et al is dependent on the reset operation abruptly... Th, Song SJ, Kim H, Seong DJ, Lee J et... \ ) ( N ) is an active component in the RRAM,. Market is expected to regsiter a CAGR of 29.9 % over the forecast period ( 202 - 2025 ) ). Li X, Liu M, Sune J ( 2011 ) Electrochemical processes device! Array design, Lin W, Zhang M, Candelier P, CW! Is its difficulty in implementation for SPICE and Verilog circuit solvers it dissolves completely increase! Between little endian and big endian data formats Sun B, et al } \ ) ( N changes! ( resistive Random-Access memory which stores data in magnetic domains Electron device 31... The growth of highly conductive filament is given in Eq receive actionable tech insights Techopedia... Re Surrounded by Spying Machines: What Functional Programming Language is Best to Learn Now Z! Draft critically and provided invaluable guidance which gave the article the final shape publication. These variations conductivity in the unipolar reset process critical one is being incompatible with the SPICE and.. On applying a voltage of opposite polarity [ 41 ] cell is based on finite element solving method features accuracy!

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